Faster HashMap implementation
dl at cs.oswego.edu
Tue Jun 30 15:09:04 PDT 2009
Inspired by the combination of Alex's efforts and ongoing
work on concurrent caches, I put together a version
of HashMap (called HashMapV2 for now) with a snapshot at
(This retains the openjdk GPL header etc.)
There are a few remaining things to consider
before taking this too seriously as a replacement.
I'll be out for 10 days starting tomorrow so probably
won't get a chance to do so soon.
It does seem to be the best plan of attack for
open-table scheme that people keep wanting (because of
fewer cache misses etc). I think it hits all of the
other issues and concerns I listed in mail a few weeks ago.
It looks very good on various performance tests, including some
I need to add/update in our "loops" tests.
(I wish the concurrent cache version for j.u.c
was in this good a state...)
Pasted below is some of the internal documentation:
* The main table uses open-addressing, with [key, value] pairs in
* alternating elements of "kvTable" array, plus a side-array
* "hashes" holding hashCodes of keys (plus status bit). If uses
* hash preconditioning for first probe, and pseudo-random probing
* from there. This gives a very good approximation of "uniform
* hashing" (see for example CLR ch12) across various key types.
* Key removal sometimes requires replacing keys with ABSENT
* markers. We minimize need for these by recording (via UNIQUE
* bit, see below) whether we can instead safely null out entry.
* Markers are cleared out on put when there are too many of them,
* as triggered by decrementing "threshold" on adding marker.
* In steady state, total footprint (ignoring non-dynamic fields)
* for open tables is less than chained, even with the side array
* of hashes. At default load factors, the total numbers words is
* steady state initial
* min ave max (default cap)
* Open: 4.00N 6.00N 8.00N 24
* Chained: 7.33N 8.00N 8.67N 16
* To conserve space for unused maps, arrays are left unallocated
* upon construction and nulled upon clearing, but with the target
* allocation size stored in negated form in threshold field,
* which conveniently requires a (size > threshold) check on
* insertion anyway. Additionally, to ensure that tables do not
* fill up with deletion markers, the threshold is decremented
* each time an element is replaced with a ABSENT marker. This
* forces resize occurring on next insertion to then replace table
* with one without markers.
* Maps of size >= CEILING_LENGTH hold overflowing entries in a
* ternary bitwise trie (see nested class HashTrie). This provides
* bounded handling without running out of array indices, at the
* price of about 4X average operation costs and 2.5X per-item
* space overhead. The trie is also used for Null keys, which
* simplifies and speeds up most other table operations. Because
* operations for Maps allowing nulls don't compose in simple ways
* (null return values do not reliably mean absent), the HashTrie
* class is not itself a Map, and so not useful outside this
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