RFR(M): 8154736: enhancement of cmpxchg and copy_to_survivor for ppc64

Doerr, Martin martin.doerr at sap.com
Mon May 28 09:05:51 UTC 2018


Hi everybody,

thank you very much for discussing this issue and helping to fix the PPC64 performance bottleneck.

Thanks, Kim and Erik, for explaining by which trick we’re using the CAS’ acquire barrier in current code.

Thanks, Michihiro, for explaining your current proposal which relies on consume. I’m convinced that it works for PPC and ARM (and of course for the strong memory model platforms).

If I understand it correctly, acquire is desired to help compilers and the hardware barrier is not needed.
The current implementation just uses our handmade inline asm code, so it’s pointless for the compilers if we use acquire or not.

However, if we want to use C++11 atomics instead of our inline asm code in the future, I think memory_order_acq_rel will be recommended to avoid compiler problems.
Was this the reason for the acquire or did I miss anything?

From performance point of view, I think we can live with an unnecessary acquire barrier. It’s so much cheaper than a full fence. So if this is the only remaining issue, I think we could just add it.

Btw. there are places in shared code where we rely on consume. I had found one and added a comment some time ago (compiledMethod.hpp):
“Note: _exception_cache may be read concurrently. We rely on memory_order_consume here.”
Seems to work correctly with volatile fields.

Best regards,
Martin


From: ppc-aix-port-dev [mailto:ppc-aix-port-dev-bounces at openjdk.java.net] On Behalf Of Erik Osterlund
Sent: Montag, 28. Mai 2018 08:48
To: Michihiro Horie <HORIE at jp.ibm.com>
Cc: hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net; Kim Barrett <kim.barrett at oracle.com>; Gustavo Bueno Romero <gromero at br.ibm.com>; ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net; hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net; david.holmes at oracle.com
Subject: Re: RFR(M): 8154736: enhancement of cmpxchg and copy_to_survivor for ppc64

Hi Michihiro,

In your analysis, you state that the failing CAS path today already relies on implicit consume ordering as reading forwardee() after the failed CAS is missing acquire and hence accesses into the new reloaded forwardee would rely on (implicit) data dependencies to  the reloaded forwardee.

That part of the analysis seems wrong to me. Since today even a failed CAS has acquire semantics (and stronger), and the reloaded forwardee always has the same value as was observed in the failed cas (in this context), all data dependency requirements to the reloaded forwardee are therefore no longer needed or relied upon.

We do not use implicit consume in the shared C++ code. If you find any instances of that, it is a bug and should be purged with fire. Even explicit consume is currently strongly discouraged. Implicit consume is unreliable, especially in a project with many platforms.

If you insist on using more fragile semantics that are known to be unreliable, I would like to at least know what measurable performance difference you observe between the semantics Kim proposed, compared to the elided acquire variant you insist on. My gut feeling tells me that double sync is very intrusive, but an isync scheduled almost immediately after an lwsync, should be significantly less intrusive.

Thanks,
/Erik

On 28 May 2018, at 03:28, Michihiro Horie <HORIE at jp.ibm.com<mailto:HORIE at jp.ibm.com>> wrote:

Hi Kim,

>I've discussed this with others on the GC team; we think the minimal
>required barriers are CAS with memory_order_acq_rel, plus an acquire
>barrier on the else branch of
>
> 122 if (!test_mark->is_marked()) {
>...
> 261 } else {
> 262 assert(o->is_forwarded(), "Sanity");
> 263 new_obj = o->forwardee();
> 264 }
>
>We've not done enough analysis to show this is sufficient, but we
>think anything weaker is not sufficient for shared code.

Thank you for the discussions on your side with the GC team.
I summarized the point on why my change works as follows. Hope we are on the same page with this.


1. Current implementation

PSPromotionManager::copy_to_survivor_space is used to move live
objects to a different location. It uses a forwarding technique and
allows multiple threads to compete for performing the copy step.

The first thread succeeds in installing its copy in the old object as
forwardee. Other threads may need to discard their copy and use the
one generated by the first thread which has won the race.

Written program order:
(1) create new_obj as copy of obj
(2) full fence
(3) CAS to set the forwardee with new_obj
(4) full fence
(5) access to the new_obj's field if CAS succeeds
(6) access to the forwardee with "o->forwardee()" if CAS fails
(7) access to the forwardee's field if debugging is on

When thread0 succeeds in CAS at (3), the copied new_obj by thread0
must be accessible from thread1 at (6). (2) guarantees the order of
(1) and (3), although it is stronger than needed for the purpose of
ensuring a consistent view of copied new_obj from thread1.

(5), (6), and (7) must be executed after (3). Apparently, (4) looks
guranteeing the order, although it is redundant.

The order of (6) and (7) is guaranteed by consume.
(5) and (6) are on different control paths.
(5) and (7): Thread0 owns new_obj when CAS succeeded and can access it
without barrier.


2. Proposed change

Written program order:
(1) create new_obj as copy of obj
(2) release fence
(3) CAS to set the forwardee with new_obj
(4) no fence
(5) access to the new_obj's field if CAS succeeds
(6) access to the forwardee with "o->forwardee()" if CAS fails
(7) access to the forwardee's field if debugging is on

Release fence at (2) is sufficient to make the copied new_obj
accessible from a thread that fails in CAS.

No fence at (4) is acceptable because it is redundant.

The order of (5), (6), and (7) is the same as the current
implementation. It is not affected by the proposed change.


3. Reason why this is sufficient

Memory coherence guarantees that all the threads share a consistent
view on the access to the same memory location, which is "_mark" in
the target code. Thread0 writes the "_mark" when it succeeds in
CAS at (3) and thread1 reads the "_mark" when it failes in CAS at (3).
Thread1 also reads the "_mark" by invoking "o->forwardee()" at (6).
(See CoRR1 in Section 8 of
https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~pes20/ppc-supplemental/test7.pdf)

Also, compilers do not speculatively load "o->forwardee()" at (6)
before the CAS at (3). This is ensured by the integrated compiler
barriers (clobber "memory" in the volatile inline asm code). And it is
also prevented because "_mark" is declared volatile.



Best regards,
--
Michihiro,
IBM Research - Tokyo

<graycol.gif>Kim Barrett ---2018/05/26 01:01:40---> On May 22, 2018, at 12:16 PM, Doerr, Martin <martin.doerr at sap.com<mailto:martin.doerr at sap.com>> wrote: >

From: Kim Barrett <kim.barrett at oracle.com<mailto:kim.barrett at oracle.com>>
To: "Doerr, Martin" <martin.doerr at sap.com<mailto:martin.doerr at sap.com>>
Cc: Michihiro Horie <HORIE at jp.ibm.com<mailto:HORIE at jp.ibm.com>>, "hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net>" <hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net>>, "hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net>" <hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net>>, Gustavo Bueno Romero <gromero at br.ibm.com<mailto:gromero at br.ibm.com>>, "ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net>" <ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net>>, "david.holmes at oracle.com<mailto:david.holmes at oracle.com>" <david.holmes at oracle.com<mailto:david.holmes at oracle.com>>
Date: 2018/05/26 01:01
Subject: Re: RFR(M): 8154736: enhancement of cmpxchg and copy_to_survivor for ppc64

________________________________



> On May 22, 2018, at 12:16 PM, Doerr, Martin <martin.doerr at sap.com<mailto:martin.doerr at sap.com>> wrote:
>
> Hi Kim,
>
> I can't see how a new implicit consume is introduced by Michihiro's change. He just explained how the existing code works.
>
> If implicit consume has been rejected the current code is wrong:
> "new_obj = o->forwardee();" would need some kind of barrier before using the new_obj.
>
> But this issue is not related to what Michihiro wants to change AFAICS.

The current full-fence CAS guarantees the stores into the new
forwardee installed by the CAS happen before loads from that object
after the CAS.  Algorithmically, o->forwardee() is guaranteed to be
the same object as was returned by the CAS.  Hence, loads from the
forwardee are being ordered by the fenced CAS.

I've discussed this with others on the GC team; we think the minimal
required barriers are CAS with memory_order_acq_rel, plus an acquire
barrier on the else branch of

122   if (!test_mark->is_marked()) {
...
261   } else {
262     assert(o->is_forwarded(), "Sanity");
263     new_obj = o->forwardee();
264   }

We've not done enough analysis to show this is sufficient, but we
think anything weaker is not sufficient for shared code.


>
> Best regards,
> Martin
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: ppc-aix-port-dev [mailto:ppc-aix-port-dev-bounces at openjdk.java.net] On Behalf Of Kim Barrett
> Sent: Montag, 21. Mai 2018 06:00
> To: Michihiro Horie <HORIE at jp.ibm.com<mailto:HORIE at jp.ibm.com>>
> Cc: hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:hotspot-dev at openjdk.java.net>; hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:hotspot-gc-dev at openjdk.java.net>; Gustavo Bueno Romero <gromero at br.ibm.com<mailto:gromero at br.ibm.com>>; ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net<mailto:ppc-aix-port-dev at openjdk.java.net>; david.holmes at oracle.com<mailto:david.holmes at oracle.com>
> Subject: Re: RFR(M): 8154736: enhancement of cmpxchg and copy_to_survivor for ppc64
>
>> On May 18, 2018, at 5:12 PM, Michihiro Horie <HORIE at jp.ibm.com<mailto:HORIE at jp.ibm.com>> wrote:
>>
>> Dear all,
>>
>> I update the webrev: http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~mhorie/8154736/webrev.09/
>>
>> With the release barrier before the CAS, new_obj can be observed from other threads. If the CAS succeeds, the current thread can use new_obj without barriers. If the CAS fails, "o->forwardee()" is ordered with respect to CAS by accessing the same memory location "_mark", so no barriers needed. The order of (1) access to the forwardee and (2) access to forwardee's fields is preserved due to Release-Consume ordering on supported platforms. (The ordering between "new_obj = o->forwardee();" and logging or other usages is not changed.)
>>
>> Regarding the maintainability, the requirement is CAS(memory_order_release) as Release-Consume to be consistent with C++11. This requirement is necessary when a weaker platform like DEC Alpha is to be supported. On currently supported platforms, code change can be safe if the code meats this requirement (and the order of (1) access to the forwardee and (2) access to forwardee's fields is the natural way of coding).
>
> Relying on implicit consume has been been discussed and rejected, in
> the earlier thread on this topic and I think elsewhere too.
>
> http://mail.openjdk.java.net/pipermail/hotspot-runtime-dev/2016-October/021538.html




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