Mixing 2D and 3D

Richard Bair richard.bair at oracle.com
Thu Jul 18 13:58:38 PDT 2013

While working on RT-5534, we found a large number of odd cases when mixing 2D and 3D. Some of these we talked about previously, some either we hadn't or, at least, they hadn't occurred to me. With 8 we are defining a lot of new API for 3D, and we need to make sure that we've very clearly defined how 2D and 3D nodes interact with each other, or developers will run into problems frequently and fire off angry emails about it :-)

Fundamentally, 2D and 3D rendering are completely different. There are differences in how opacity is understood and applied. 2D graphics frequently use clips, whereas 3D does not (other than clipping the view frustum or other such environmental clipping). 2D uses things like filter effects (drop shadow, etc) that is based on pixel bashing, whereas 3D uses light sources, shaders, or other such techniques to cast shadows, implement fog, dynamic lighting, etc. In short, 2D is fundamentally about drawing pixels and blending using the Painters Algorithm, whereas 3D is about geometry and shaders and (usually) a depth buffer. Of course 2D is almost always defined as 0,0 in the top left, positive x to the right and positive y down, whereas 3D is almost always 0,0 in the center, positive x to the right and positive y up. But that's just a transform away, so I don't consider that a *fundamental* difference.

There are many ways in which these differences manifest themselves when mixing content between the two graphics.


This picture shows 4 circles and a rectangle. They are setup such that all 5 shapes are in the same group [c1, c2, r, c3, c4]. However depthBuffer is turned on (as well as perspective camera) so that I can use Z to position the shapes instead of using the painter's algorithm. You will notice that the first two circles (green and magenta) have a "dirty edge", whereas the last two circles (blue and orange) look beautiful. Note that even though there is a depth buffer involved, we're still issuing these shapes to the card in a specific order.

For those not familiar with the depth buffer, the way it works is very simple. When you draw something, in addition to recording the RGBA values for each pixel, you also write to an array (one element per pixel) with a value for every non-transparent pixel that was touched. In this way, if you draw something on top, and then draw something beneath it, the graphics card can check the depth buffer to determine whether it should skip a pixel. So in the image, we draw green for the green circle, and then later draw the black for the rectangle, and because some pixels were already drawn to by the green circle, the card knows not to overwrite those with the black pixel in the background rectangle.

The depth buffer is just a technique used to ensure that content rendered respects Z for the order in which things appear composited in the final frame. (You can individually cause nodes to ignore this requirement by setting depthTest to false for a specific node or branch of the scene graph, in which case they won't check with the depth buffer prior to drawing their pixels, they'll just overwrite anything that was drawn previously, even if it has a Z value that would put it behind the thing it is drawing over!).

For the sake of this discussion "3D World" means "depth buffer enabled" and assumes perspective camera is enabled, and 2D means "2.5D capable" by which I mean perspective camera but no depth buffer.


	1) Draw the first green circle. This is done by rendering the circle into an image with nice anti-aliasing, and then rotating that image
             and blend with anything already in the frame buffer
	2) Draw the magenta circle. Same as with green -- draw into an image with nice AA and rotate and blend
	3) Draw the rectangle. Because the depth buffer is turned on, for each pixel of the green & magenta circles, we *don't* render
	     any black. Because the AA edge has been touched with some transparency, it was written to the depth buffer, and we will not
	     draw any black there. Hence the dirty fringe! No blending!
	4) Draw the blue circle into an image with nice AA, rotate, and blend. AA edges are blended nicely with black background!
	5) Draw the orange circle into an image with nice AA, rotate, and blend. AA edges are blended nicely with black background!

Transparency in 3D is a problem, and on ES2 it is particularly difficult to solve. As such, it is usually up to the application to sort their scene graph nodes in such a way as to end up with something sensible. The difficulty in this case is that when you use any 2D node and mix it in with 3D nodes (or even other 2D nodes but with the depth buffer turned on) then you end up in a situation where the nice AA ends up being a liability rather than an asset -- unless you have manually sorted all your nodes in such a way as to avoid the transparency problems.

There are other problems. Suppose you create a scene where you have 3 Rectangles, with Z values:


g1 = [r2, r3]
g2 = [g1, r1]

If you have the depth buffer turned on, then you would expect that r1 is drawn on top of r2, which is drawn on top of r3, regardless of the presence of groups, because the order in which things are rendered is independent of the order in which they appear, since we're using a depth buffer, so the Z values are the only thing that really dictates the order in which things appear.

Now, something weird is going to happen if I either apply an effect, clip, blendMode, or turn node caching on to g1. Because all 4 of these properties are 2D properties that by their nature result in "flattening". That is, they take the scene graph they've been given and render to an intermediate image, and are then composited into the rest of the scene. In this case, since g1 has no Z translation, what you would get is the combination of r2 and r3 drawn on top of r1! We've flattened r2 and r3 into an image which is then rendered at Z=0, which is above r1 with z=10.

This behavior, although surprising, is consistent and correct. But it sure is surprising for those, who like me, are traditional 2D developers coming to the 3D world!

Then there is the new support for scene anti-aliasing (presently using multi-sampling, referred to as MSAA . In our 2D rendering, we always anti-alias all shapes using a special set of shaders and grayscale masks generated in software. This is a common technique and produces objectively the best AA money can buy, often with the least overhead (the cost is in generating and uploading the masks, which for most things we've optimized the heck out of, though for paths you still will run into the worst case scenarios). MSAA on the other hand, applies an algorithm against the entire scene in order to produce "automatic" AA on everything (there are many ways to do scene anti-aliasing. One way you can think of would be to draw to a buffer 4x or 8x as large as necessary, and then scale it down using bilinear scaling to 1x and put that on the screen, letting the image scaling algorithm do the work).


Here you can see the smoothed edges of the monster. However MSAA does take extra cycles and on resource constrained devices you may not want to do this at all. In addition, it gives you worse AA than you would get with our mask / shader approach for 2D shapes.

Also, opacity. In 2D rendering contexts, using opacity means "render to an image and apply the alpha blend to the entire image". This also inherently means flattening. In 3D contexts, if you put an alpha on a Group, it should mean "multiply this alpha with the alpha of each of my children individually". This would always give the wrong result in 2D, but generally the right one in 3D. And certainly better than flattening a group, which is pretty much always a problem.

So in summary, if you use 2D APIs in a 3D world (effect, clip, blendMode, node caching) then you get surprising results. If you use a 2D shape in a 3D world then the nice AA of 2D shapes may end up good or bad depending on the render order relative to depth. And depending on whether you use a parallel or perspective camera, using 3D shapes in a 2D world may end up quite surprising as well.

So what do I propose to do about this? Well, we can leave it be and just document the heck out of it. Or we can try to tease apart the scene graph into Node, Node3D, and NodeBase. Right now we're doing the former, and I've tried the latter and it makes a mess in many places. We can talk about those alternatives if you like, but to shorten (ahem) this message, I'm going to just say it doesn't work (at least, it doesn't work well and may not work at all) and leave it at that.

Instead I propose that we keep the integrated scene graph as we have it, but that we introduce two new classes, Scene3D and SubScene3D. These would be configured specially in two ways. First, they would default to depthTest enabled, scene antialiasing enabled, and perspective camera. Meanwhile, Scene and SubScene would be configured for 2.5D by default, such that depthTest is disabled, scene AA is disabled, and perspective camera is set. In this way, if you rotate a 2.5D shape, you get perspective as you would expect, but none of the other 3D behaviors. Scene3D and SubScene3D could also have y-up and 0,0 in the center.

Second, we will interpret the meaning of opacity differently depending on whether you are in a Scene / SubScene, or a Scene3D / SubScene3D. Over time we will also implement different semantics for rendering in both worlds. For example, if you put a 2D rectangle in a Scene3D / SubScene3D, we would use a quad to represent the rectangle and would not AA it at all, allowing the scene3D's anti-aliasing property to define how to handle this. Likewise, a complex path could either be tessellated or we could still use the mask + shader approach to filling it, but that we would do so with no AA (so the mask is black or white, not grayscale).

If you use effects, clips, or blendModes we're going to flatten in the 3D world as well. But since these are not common things to do in 3D, I find that quite acceptable. Meanwhile in 3D we'll simply ignore the cache property (since it is just a hint).

So the idea is that we can have different pipelines optimized for 2D or 3D rendering, and we will key-off which kind to use based on Scene / Scene3D, or SubScene / SubScene3D. Shapes will look different depending on which world they're rendered in, but that follows. All shapes (2D and 3D) will render by the same rules in the 3D realm.



More information about the openjfx-dev mailing list