[9] RFR (M): 8057967: CallSite dependency tracking scales devastatingly poorly

Vladimir Ivanov vladimir.x.ivanov at oracle.com
Wed Apr 8 13:06:41 UTC 2015

Any volunteers to review VM part?

Latest webrev:

Best regards,
Vladimir Ivanov

On 4/1/15 11:56 PM, Vladimir Ivanov wrote:
> http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~vlivanov/8057967/webrev.00/hotspot/
> http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~vlivanov/8057967/webrev.00/jdk/
> https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8057967
> HotSpot JITs inline very aggressively through CallSites. The
> optimistically treat CallSite target as constant, but record a nmethod
> dependency to invalidate the compiled code once CallSite target changes.
> Right now, such dependencies have call site class as a context. This
> context is too coarse and it leads to context pollution: if some
> CallSite target changes, VM needs to enumerate all nmethods which
> depends on call sites of such type.
> As performance analysis in the bug report shows, it can sum to
> significant amount of work.
> While working on the fix, I investigated 3 approaches:
>    (1) unique context per call site
>    (2) use CallSite target class
>    (3) use a class the CallSite instance is linked to
> Considering call sites are ubiquitous (e.g. 10,000s on some octane
> benchmarks), loading a dedicated class for every call site is an
> overkill (even VM anonymous).
> CallSite target class
> (MethodHandle.form->LambdaForm.vmentry->MemberName.clazz->Class<?>) is
> also not satisfactory, since it is a compiled LambdaForm VM anonymous
> class, which is heavily shared. It gets context pollution down, but
> still the overhead is quite high.
> So, I decided to focus on (3) and ended up with a mixture of (2) & (3).
> Comparing to other options, the complications of (3) are:
>    - CallSite can stay unlinked (e.g. CallSite.dynamicInvoker()), so
> there should be some default context VM can use
>    - CallSite instances can be shared and it shouldn't keep the context
> class from unloading;
> It motivated a scheme where CallSite context is initialized lazily and
> can change during lifetime. When CallSite is linked with an indy
> instruction, it's context is initialized. Usually, JIT sees CallSite
> instances with initialized context (since it reaches them through indy),
> but if it's not the case and there's no context yet, JIT sets it to
> "default context", which means "use target call site".
> I introduced CallSite$DependencyContext, which represents a nmethod
> dependency context and points (indirectly) to a Class<?> used as a context.
> Context class is referenced through a phantom reference
> (sun.misc.Cleaner to simplify cleanup). Though it's impossible to
> extract referent using Reference.get(), VM can access it directly by
> reading corresponding field. Unlike other types of references, phantom
> references aren't cleared automatically. It allows VM to access context
> class until cleanup is performed. And cleanup resets the context to
> NULL, in addition to invalidating all relevant dependencies.
> There are 3 context states a CallSite instance can be in:
>    (1) NULL: no depedencies
>    (2) DependencyContext.DEFAULT_CONTEXT: dependencies are stored in
> call site target class
>    (3) DependencyContext for some class: dependencies are stored on the
> class DependencyContext instance points to
> Every CallSite starts w/o a context (1) and then lazily gets one ((2) or
> (3) depending on the situation).
> State transitions:
>    (1->3): When a CallSite w/o a context (1) is linked with some indy
> call site, it's owner is recorded as a context (3).
>    (1->2): When JIT needs to record a dependency on a target of a
> CallSite w/o a context(1), it sets the context to DEFAULT_CONTEXT and
> uses target class to store the dependency.
>    (3->1): When context class becomes unreachable, a cleanup hook
> invalidates all dependencies on that CallSite and resets the context to
> NULL (1).
> Only (3->1) requires dependency invalidation, because there are no
> depedencies in (1) and (2->1) isn't performed.
> (1->3) is done in Java code (CallSite.initContext) and (1->2) is
> performed in VM (ciCallSite::get_context()). The updates are performed
> by CAS, so there's no need in additional synchronization. Other
> operations on VM side are volatile (to play well with Java code) and
> performed with Compile_lock held (to avoid races between VM operations).
> Some statistics:
>    Box2D, latest jdk9-dev
>      - CallSite instances: ~22000
>      - invalidated nmethods due to CallSite target changes: ~60
>      - checked call_site_target_value dependencies:
>        - before the fix: ~1,600,000
>        - after the fix:        ~600
> Testing:
>    - dedicated test which excercises different state transitions
>    - jdk/java/lang/invoke, hotspot/test/compiler/jsr292, nashorn
> Thanks!
> Best regards,
> Vladimir Ivanov

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