RFR(S): 8020151: PSR:PERF Large performance regressions when code cache is filled

Albert Noll albert.noll at oracle.com
Wed Aug 21 07:42:20 PDT 2013

Hi all,

could I have reviews for this patch? Please note
that I do not yet feel very confident with the sweeper,
so please take a close look.

jbs: https://jbs.oracle.com/bugs/browse/JDK-8020151
webrev: http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~anoll/8020151/webrev.00/ 

Many thanks in advance,

Problem: There can be large performance regressions when the code cache 
fills up. There are
several reasons for the performance regression: First (1), when the code 
cache is full and methods
are speculatively disconnected, the oldest methods (based on compilation 
ID) are scheduled for
flushing. This can result in flushing hot methods. Second (2), when 
compilation is disabled due to a full
code cache, the number of sweeps can go down. A lower number of sweep 
operations results
in slower method flushing.

Introduce a hotness counter that is set to a particular value (e.g., 
100) when there is an activation
of the method during stack scanning. The counter is decremented by 1 
every time the sweeper
is invoked.

ad (1):
   A VM operation that speculatively disconnects nmethods, selects the 
methods that should be
   flushed based on the hotness. For example, if 50% of the code cache 
shall be flushed, we flush
   those methods that have not been active while stack scanning for the 
longest time. Note that
   while this strategy is more likely to flush cold methods, it is not 
clear to what extent the new
   strategy fragments the code cache.

   Changes in NMethodSweeper::speculative_disconnect_nmethods(bool is_full)

ad (2)
   Currently, methods are removed from the code cache if:
     a) code cache is full
     b) class is unloaded
     c) method is replaced by another version (i.e., compiled with a 
different tier)
     d) deopt

    The current patch adds a 5-th possibility to remove a method from 
the code cache.
    In particular, if a method has not been active during stack scanning 
for a long-enough
    amount of time, the method is removed from the code cache. The 
amount of time
    required to flush the method depends on the available space in the 
code cache.

    Here is one example: If a method was seen on a stack the hotness 
    is set to 100. A sweep operation takes roughly place every 100ms. 
I.e., it takes
    100ms * 100 = 10s until the hotness counter reaches 0. The threshold 
that determines
    if a method should be removed from the code cache is calculated as 

    threshold = -100 + (CodeCache::reverse_free_ratio() * 

     For example, if 25% of the code cache is free, reverse_free_ratio 
returns 4.
     The default value of NMethodSweepActivity is 10. As a result, 
threshold = -60.
     Consequently, all methods that have a hotness value smaller than 
-60 (which
     means they have not been seen on the stack for 16s) are scheduled 
to be flushed
     from the code cache. See an illustration of the threshold as a 
function of the available
     code cache in threshold.pdf

     Note that NMethodSweepActivity is a parameter that can be specified 
via a -XX

Changes in NMethodSweeper::sweep_code_cache()

A very preliminary performance evaluation looks promising. I used the 
benchmarks where a series of benchmarks is executed in the same VM instance.
See performance.pdf . The x-axis shows the benchmarks. Assume we have 2 
(BM). The execution sequence is as follows:

BM1 (Run 1-1)
BM1 (Run 2-1)
BM2 (Run 1-1)
BM2 (Run 2-1)

BM1 (Run 1-2)
BM1 (Run 2-2)
BM2 (Run 1-2)
BM2 (Run 2-2)

A value larger than 0 on the x-axis indicates that the version including 
the proposed patch is faster.
I.e., the values are calculated as follows: (T_original / T_with_patch) 
- 1. T is the execution time
(wall clock time) of the benchmark. ReservedCodeCacheSize is set to 
50m.  I used three runs and
the arithmetic average to compare the numbers. I know, we need much more 
data, however,
I think we can see a trend.

The current patch does not trigger a warning that the code cache is full 
and compilation has been

Please let me know that you think.
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: http://mail.openjdk.java.net/pipermail/hotspot-compiler-dev/attachments/20130821/6478f023/attachment-0001.html 
-------------- next part --------------
A non-text attachment was scrubbed...
Name: threshold.pdf
Type: application/pdf
Size: 13321 bytes
Desc: not available
Url : http://mail.openjdk.java.net/pipermail/hotspot-compiler-dev/attachments/20130821/6478f023/threshold-0001.pdf 
-------------- next part --------------
A non-text attachment was scrubbed...
Name: performance.pdf
Type: application/pdf
Size: 14641 bytes
Desc: not available
Url : http://mail.openjdk.java.net/pipermail/hotspot-compiler-dev/attachments/20130821/6478f023/performance-0001.pdf 

More information about the hotspot-compiler-dev mailing list